ej.bon

## Class XMath

• java.lang.Object
• ej.bon.XMath

• ```public final class XMath
extends java.lang.Object```
• ### Field Summary

Fields
Modifier and Type Field and Description
`static double` `E`
The `double` value that is closer than any other to e, the base of the natural logarithms.
`static double` `PI`
The `double` value that is closer than any other to pi, the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter.
• ### Method Summary

All Methods
Modifier and Type Method and Description
`static double` `abs(double a)`
Returns the absolute value of a `double` value.
`static float` `abs(float a)`
Returns the absolute value of a `float` value.
`static int` `abs(int a)`
Returns the absolute value of an `int` value.
`static long` `abs(long a)`
Returns the absolute value of a `long` value.
`static double` `acos(double a)`
Returns the arc cosine of a value; the returned angle is in the range 0.0 through pi.
`static double` `asin(double a)`
Returns the arc sine of a value; the returned angle is in the range -pi/2 through pi/2.
`static double` `atan(double a)`
Returns the arc tangent of a value; the returned angle is in the range -pi/2 through pi/2.
`static double` `ceil(double a)`
Returns the smallest (closest to negative infinity) `double` value that is greater than or equal to the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer.
`static double` `cos(double a)`
Returns the trigonometric cosine of an angle.
`static double` `exp(double a)`
Returns Euler's number e raised to the power of a double value.
`static double` `floor(double a)`
Returns the largest (closest to positive infinity) `double` value that is less than or equal to the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer.
`static double` ```limit(double value, double min, double max)```
Limits a value between two others: If `value` is lower than `min`, returns `min`. If `value` is greater than `max`, returns `max`. Otherwise, returns `value`.
`static float` ```limit(float value, float min, float max)```
Limits a value between two others: If `value` is lower than `min`, returns `min`. If `value` is greater than `max`, returns `max`. Otherwise, returns `value`.
`static int` ```limit(int value, int min, int max)```
Limits a value between two others: If `value` is lower than `min`, returns `min`. If `value` is greater than `max`, returns `max`. Otherwise, returns `value`.
`static long` ```limit(long value, long min, long max)```
Limits a value between two others: If `value` is lower than `min`, returns `min`. If `value` is greater than `max`, returns `max`. Otherwise, returns `value`.
`static double` `log(double a)`
Returns the natural logarithm (base e) of a double value.
`static double` ```max(double a, double b)```
Returns the greater of two `double` values.
`static float` ```max(float a, float b)```
Returns the greater of two `float` values.
`static int` ```max(int a, int b)```
Returns the greater of two `int` values.
`static long` ```max(long a, long b)```
Returns the greater of two `long` values.
`static double` ```min(double a, double b)```
Returns the smaller of two `double` values.
`static float` ```min(float a, float b)```
Returns the smaller of two `float` values.
`static int` ```min(int a, int b)```
Returns the smaller of two `int` values.
`static long` ```min(long a, long b)```
Returns the smaller of two `long` values.
`static double` ```pow(double a, double b)```
Returns the value of the first argument raised to the power of the second argument.
`static double` `sin(double a)`
Returns the trigonometric sine of an angle.
`static double` `sqrt(double a)`
Returns the correctly rounded positive square root of a `double` value.
`static double` `tan(double a)`
Returns the trigonometric tangent of an angle.
`static double` `toDegrees(double angrad)`
Converts an angle measured in radians to an approximately equivalent angle measured in degrees.
`static double` `toRadians(double angdeg)`
Converts an angle measured in degrees to an approximately equivalent angle measured in radians.
• ### Methods inherited from class java.lang.Object

`equals, getClass, hashCode, notify, notifyAll, toString, wait, wait, wait`
• ### Field Detail

• #### E

`public static final double E`
The `double` value that is closer than any other to e, the base of the natural logarithms.
See Also:
Constant Field Values
• #### PI

`public static final double PI`
The `double` value that is closer than any other to pi, the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter.
See Also:
Constant Field Values
• ### Method Detail

• #### abs

`public static double abs(double a)`
Returns the absolute value of a `double` value. If the argument is not negative, the argument is returned. If the argument is negative, the negation of the argument is returned. Special cases:
• If the argument is positive zero or negative zero, the result is positive zero.
• If the argument is infinite, the result is positive infinity.
• If the argument is NaN, the result is NaN.
In other words, the result is the same as the value of the expression:

`Double.longBitsToDouble((Double.doubleToLongBits(a)<<1)>>>1)`

Parameters:
`a` - the argument whose absolute value is to be determined
Returns:
the absolute value of the argument.
• #### abs

`public static float abs(float a)`
Returns the absolute value of a `float` value. If the argument is not negative, the argument is returned. If the argument is negative, the negation of the argument is returned. Special cases:
• If the argument is positive zero or negative zero, the result is positive zero.
• If the argument is infinite, the result is positive infinity.
• If the argument is NaN, the result is NaN.
In other words, the result is the same as the value of the expression:

`Float.intBitsToFloat(0x7fffffff & Float.floatToIntBits(a))`
Parameters:
`a` - the argument whose absolute value is to be determined
Returns:
the absolute value of the argument.
• #### abs

`public static int abs(int a)`
Returns the absolute value of an `int` value. If the argument is not negative, the argument is returned. If the argument is negative, the negation of the argument is returned.

Note that if the argument is equal to the value of `Integer.MIN_VALUE`, the most negative representable `int` value, the result is that same value, which is negative.

Parameters:
`a` - the argument whose absolute value is to be determined
Returns:
the absolute value of the argument.
See Also:
`Integer.MIN_VALUE`
• #### abs

`public static long abs(long a)`
Returns the absolute value of a `long` value. If the argument is not negative, the argument is returned. If the argument is negative, the negation of the argument is returned.

Note that if the argument is equal to the value of `Long.MIN_VALUE`, the most negative representable `long` value, the result is that same value, which is negative.

Parameters:
`a` - the argument whose absolute value is to be determined
Returns:
the absolute value of the argument.
See Also:
`Long.MIN_VALUE`
• #### ceil

`public static double ceil(double a)`
Returns the smallest (closest to negative infinity) `double` value that is greater than or equal to the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer. Special cases:
• If the argument value is already equal to a mathematical integer, then the result is the same as the argument.
• If the argument is NaN or an infinity or positive zero or negative zero, then the result is the same as the argument.
• If the argument value is less than zero but greater than -1.0, then the result is negative zero.
Note that the value of `Math.ceil(x)` is exactly the value of `-Math.floor(-x)`.
Parameters:
`a` - a value.
Returns:
the smallest (closest to negative infinity) floating-point value that is greater than or equal to the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer.
• #### cos

`public static double cos(double a)`
Returns the trigonometric cosine of an angle. Special cases:
• If the argument is NaN or an infinity, then the result is NaN.

The computed result must be within 1 ulp of the exact result. Results must be semi-monotonic.

Parameters:
`a` - an angle, in radians.
Returns:
the cosine of the argument.
• #### floor

`public static double floor(double a)`
Returns the largest (closest to positive infinity) `double` value that is less than or equal to the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer. Special cases:
• If the argument value is already equal to a mathematical integer, then the result is the same as the argument.
• If the argument is NaN or an infinity or positive zero or negative zero, then the result is the same as the argument.
Parameters:
`a` - a value.
Returns:
the largest (closest to positive infinity) floating-point value that less than or equal to the argument and is equal to a mathematical integer.
• #### max

```public static double max(double a,
double b)```
Returns the greater of two `double` values. That is, the result is the argument closer to positive infinity. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value. If either value is NaN, then the result is NaN. Unlike the numerical comparison operators, this method considers negative zero to be strictly smaller than positive zero. If one argument is positive zero and the other negative zero, the result is positive zero.
Parameters:
`a` - an argument.
`b` - another argument.
Returns:
the larger of `a` and `b`.
• #### max

```public static float max(float a,
float b)```
Returns the greater of two `float` values. That is, the result is the argument closer to positive infinity. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value. If either value is NaN, then the result is NaN. Unlike the numerical comparison operators, this method considers negative zero to be strictly smaller than positive zero. If one argument is positive zero and the other negative zero, the result is positive zero.
Parameters:
`a` - an argument.
`b` - another argument.
Returns:
the larger of `a` and `b`.
• #### max

```public static long max(long a,
long b)```
Returns the greater of two `long` values. That is, the result is the argument closer to the value of `Long.MAX_VALUE`. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value.
Parameters:
`a` - an argument.
`b` - another argument.
Returns:
the larger of `a` and `b`.
See Also:
`Long.MAX_VALUE`
• #### max

```public static int max(int a,
int b)```
Returns the greater of two `int` values. That is, the result is the argument closer to the value of `Integer.MAX_VALUE`. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value.
Parameters:
`a` - an argument.
`b` - another argument.
Returns:
the larger of `a` and `b`.
See Also:
`Long.MAX_VALUE`
• #### min

```public static double min(double a,
double b)```
Returns the smaller of two `double` values. That is, the result is the value closer to negative infinity. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value. If either value is NaN, then the result is NaN. Unlike the numerical comparison operators, this method considers negative zero to be strictly smaller than positive zero. If one argument is positive zero and the other is negative zero, the result is negative zero.
Parameters:
`a` - an argument.
`b` - another argument.
Returns:
the smaller of `a` and `b`.
• #### min

```public static float min(float a,
float b)```
Returns the smaller of two `float` values. That is, the result is the value closer to negative infinity. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value. If either value is NaN, then the result is NaN. Unlike the numerical comparison operators, this method considers negative zero to be strictly smaller than positive zero. If one argument is positive zero and the other is negative zero, the result is negative zero.
Parameters:
`a` - an argument.
`b` - another argument.
Returns:
the smaller of `a` and `b.`
• #### min

```public static int min(int a,
int b)```
Returns the smaller of two `int` values. That is, the result the argument closer to the value of `Integer.MIN_VALUE`. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value.
Parameters:
`a` - an argument.
`b` - another argument.
Returns:
the smaller of `a` and `b`.
See Also:
`Long.MIN_VALUE`
• #### min

```public static long min(long a,
long b)```
Returns the smaller of two `long` values. That is, the result is the argument closer to the value of `Long.MIN_VALUE`. If the arguments have the same value, the result is that same value.
Parameters:
`a` - an argument.
`b` - another argument.
Returns:
the smaller of `a` and `b`.
See Also:
`Long.MIN_VALUE`
• #### sin

`public static double sin(double a)`
Returns the trigonometric sine of an angle. Special cases:
• If the argument is NaN or an infinity, then the result is NaN.
• If the argument is zero, then the result is a zero with the same sign as the argument.

The computed result must be within 1 ulp of the exact result. Results must be semi-monotonic.

Parameters:
`a` - an angle, in radians.
Returns:
the sine of the argument.
• #### sqrt

`public static double sqrt(double a)`
Returns the correctly rounded positive square root of a `double` value. Special cases:
• If the argument is NaN or less than zero, then the result is NaN.
• If the argument is positive infinity, then the result is positive infinity.
• If the argument is positive zero or negative zero, then the result is the same as the argument.
Otherwise, the result is the `double` value closest to the true mathematical square root of the argument value.
Parameters:
`a` - a value.
Returns:
the positive square root of `a`. If the argument is NaN or less than zero, the result is NaN.
• #### tan

`public static double tan(double a)`
Returns the trigonometric tangent of an angle. Special cases:
• If the argument is NaN or an infinity, then the result is NaN.
• If the argument is zero, then the result is a zero with the same sign as the argument.

The computed result must be within 1 ulp of the exact result. Results must be semi-monotonic.

Parameters:
`a` - an angle, in radians.
Returns:
the tangent of the argument.
• #### toDegrees

`public static double toDegrees(double angrad)`
Converts an angle measured in radians to an approximately equivalent angle measured in degrees. The conversion from radians to degrees is generally inexact; users should not expect `cos(toRadians(90.0))` to exactly equal `0.0`.
Parameters:
`angrad` - an angle, in radians
Returns:
the measurement of the angle `angrad` in degrees.
• #### toRadians

`public static double toRadians(double angdeg)`
Converts an angle measured in degrees to an approximately equivalent angle measured in radians. The conversion from degrees to radians is generally inexact.
Parameters:
`angdeg` - an angle, in degrees
Returns:
the measurement of the angle `angdeg` in radians.
• #### asin

`public static double asin(double a)`
Returns the arc sine of a value; the returned angle is in the range -pi/2 through pi/2. Special cases:
• If the argument is NaN or its absolute value is greater than 1, then the result is NaN.
• If the argument is zero, then the result is a zero with the same sign as the argument.

The computed result must be within 1 ulp of the exact result. Results must be semi-monotonic.

Parameters:
`a` - the value whose arc sine is to be returned.
Returns:
the arc sine of the argument.
• #### acos

`public static double acos(double a)`
Returns the arc cosine of a value; the returned angle is in the range 0.0 through pi. Special case:
• If the argument is NaN or its absolute value is greater than 1, then the result is NaN.

The computed result must be within 1 ulp of the exact result. Results must be semi-monotonic.

Parameters:
`a` - the value whose arc cosine is to be returned.
Returns:
the arc cosine of the argument.
• #### atan

`public static double atan(double a)`
Returns the arc tangent of a value; the returned angle is in the range -pi/2 through pi/2. Special cases:
• If the argument is NaN, then the result is NaN.
• If the argument is zero, then the result is a zero with the same sign as the argument.

The computed result must be within 1 ulp of the exact result. Results must be semi-monotonic.

Parameters:
`a` - the value whose arc tangent is to be returned.
Returns:
the arc tangent of the argument.
• #### log

`public static double log(double a)`
Returns the natural logarithm (base e) of a double value. Special cases:
• If the argument is NaN or less than zero, then the result is NaN.
• If the argument is positive infinity, then the result is positive infinity.
• If the argument is positive zero or negative zero, then the result is negative infinity.

The computed result must be within 1 ulp of the exact result. Results must be semi-monotonic.

Parameters:
`a` - the value whose the natural logarithm is to be returned
Returns:
the value ln a
• #### exp

`public static double exp(double a)`
Returns Euler's number e raised to the power of a double value. Special cases:
• If the argument is NaN, the result is NaN.
• If the argument is positive infinity, then the result is positive infinity.
• If the argument is negative infinity, then the result is positive zero.
The computed result must be within 1 ulp of the exact result. Results must be semi-monotonic.
Parameters:
`a` - the exponent to raise e to.
Returns:
the value ea, where e is the base of the natural logarithms.
• #### pow

```public static double pow(double a,
double b)```
Returns the value of the first argument raised to the power of the second argument. Special cases:
• If the second argument is positive or negative zero, then the result is 1.0.
• If the second argument is 1.0, then the result is the same as the first argument.
• If the second argument is NaN, then the result is NaN.
• If the first argument is NaN and the second argument is nonzero, then the result is NaN.
• If
• the absolute value of the first argument is greater than 1 and the second argument is positive infinity, or
• the absolute value of the first argument is less than 1 and the second argument is negative infinity,
then the result is positive infinity.
• If
• the absolute value of the first argument is greater than 1 and the second argument is negative infinity, or
• the absolute value of the first argument is less than 1 and the second argument is positive infinity,
then the result is positive zero.
• If the absolute value of the first argument equals 1 and the second argument is infinite, then the result is NaN.
• If
• the first argument is positive zero and the second argument is greater than zero, or
• the first argument is positive infinity and the second argument is less than zero,
then the result is positive zero.
• If
• the first argument is positive zero and the second argument is less than zero, or
• the first argument is positive infinity and the second argument is greater than zero,
then the result is positive infinity.
• If
• the first argument is negative zero and the second argument is greater than zero but not a finite odd integer, or
• the first argument is negative infinity and the second argument is less than zero but not a finite odd integer,
then the result is positive zero.
• If
• the first argument is negative zero and the second argument is a positive finite odd integer, or
• the first argument is negative infinity and the second argument is a negative finite odd integer,
then the result is negative zero.
• If
• the first argument is negative zero and the second argument is less than zero but not a finite odd integer, or
• the first argument is negative infinity and the second argument is greater than zero but not a finite odd integer,
then the result is positive infinity.
• If
• the first argument is negative zero and the second argument is a negative finite odd integer, or
• the first argument is negative infinity and the second argument is a positive finite odd integer,
then the result is negative infinity.
• If the first argument is finite and less than zero
• if the second argument is a finite even integer, the result is equal to the result of raising the absolute value of the first argument to the power of the second argument
• if the second argument is a finite odd integer, the result is equal to the negative of the result of raising the absolute value of the first argument to the power of the second argument
• if the second argument is finite and not an integer, then the result is NaN.
• If both arguments are integers, then the result is exactly equal to the mathematical result of raising the first argument to the power of the second argument if that result can in fact be represented exactly as a double value.

(In the foregoing descriptions, a floating-point value is considered to be an integer if and only if it is finite and a fixed point of the method `ceil` or, equivalently, a fixed point of the method `floor`. A value is a fixed point of a one-argument method if and only if the result of applying the method to the value is equal to the value.) The computed result must be within 1 ulp of the exact result. Results must be semi-monotonic.

Parameters:
`a` - the base.
`b` - the exponent.
Returns:
the value ab.
• #### limit

```public static int limit(int value,
int min,
int max)```
Limits a value between two others:
1. If `value` is lower than `min`, returns `min`.
2. If `value` is greater than `max`, returns `max`.
3. Otherwise, returns `value`.
Parameters:
`value` - the value to limit
`min` - the lower bound
`max` - the upper bound
Returns:
the limited value
Throws:
`java.lang.IllegalArgumentException` - if `min` is greater than `max`
• #### limit

```public static float limit(float value,
float min,
float max)```
Limits a value between two others:
1. If `value` is lower than `min`, returns `min`.
2. If `value` is greater than `max`, returns `max`.
3. Otherwise, returns `value`.
Parameters:
`value` - the value to limit
`min` - the lower bound
`max` - the upper bound
Returns:
the limited value
Throws:
`java.lang.IllegalArgumentException` - if `min` is greater than `max`
• #### limit

```public static long limit(long value,
long min,
long max)```
Limits a value between two others:
1. If `value` is lower than `min`, returns `min`.
2. If `value` is greater than `max`, returns `max`.
3. Otherwise, returns `value`.
Parameters:
`value` - the value to limit
`min` - the lower bound
`max` - the upper bound
Returns:
the limited value
Throws:
`java.lang.IllegalArgumentException` - if `min` is greater than `max`
• #### limit

```public static double limit(double value,
double min,
double max)```
Limits a value between two others:
1. If `value` is lower than `min`, returns `min`.
2. If `value` is greater than `max`, returns `max`.
3. Otherwise, returns `value`.
Parameters:
`value` - the value to limit
`min` - the lower bound
`max` - the upper bound
Returns:
the limited value
Throws:
`java.lang.IllegalArgumentException` - if `min` is greater than `max`